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Comprehensive Eye and Vision Examination

Main St Optometry Newmarket
31 August 2019
Comprehensive Eye and Vision Examination
Periodic eye and vision examinations  are an important part of preventive health care. Many eye and vision  problems have no obvious signs or symptoms, so you might not know a  problem exists. Early diagnosis and treatment of eye and vision problems  can help prevent vision loss.

Each patient's signs and symptoms,  along with your optometrist's professional judgment, will determine  what tests your optometrist conducts. A comprehensive adult eye and  vision examination may include, but is not limited to, the following  tests.

Patient History
The doctor will ask about any eye or vision problems you are  currently having and about your overall health. In addition, a patient  history will include when your eye or vision symptoms began, medications  you are taking, and any work-related or environmental conditions that  may be affecting your vision. The doctor will also ask about any  previous eye or health conditions you and your family members have  experienced.

Visual Acuity
Visual acuity measurements evaluate how clearly each eye is seeing.  Reading charts are often used to measure visual acuity. As part of the  testing, you will read letters on charts at a distance and near.

 The results of visual acuity testing are written as a fraction, such as  20/40. The top number in the fraction is the standard distance at which  testing is done (20 feet). The bottom number is the smallest letter  size you were able to read. A person with 20/40 visual acuity would have  to get within 20 feet to see a letter that should be seen clearly at 40  feet. Normal distance visual acuity is 20/20.

Preliminary Tests
An optometrist may first want to look at specific aspects of  your visual function and eye health. Preliminary tests can include  evaluations of depth perception, color vision, eye muscle movements,  peripheral or side vision, and the way your pupils respond to light.

These tests measure the curvature of the cornea (the clear  outer surface of the eye) by focusing a circle of light on the cornea  and measuring its reflection. This measurement is particularly critical  in determining the proper fit for contact lenses.

Refraction determines the lens power you need to compensate for any  refractive error (nearsightedness, farsightedness or astigmatism). Using  an instrument called a phoropter, your optometrist places a series of  lenses in front of your eyes. He or she then measures how these lenses  focus light using a handheld lighted instrument called a retinoscope.  Your doctor may choose to use an instrument that automatically evaluates  the focusing power of the eye. The lens power is then refined based  your input on the lenses that give you the clearest vision.

This  testing can be done without eye drops to determine how the eyes respond  under normal seeing conditions. However, an optometrist will use eye  drops with patients who can't respond verbally or when some of the eyes'  focusing power may be hidden. The drops temporarily keep the eyes from  changing focus during testing.

Eye Focusing, Eye Teaming, and Eye Movement Testing
To see a clear, single image, the eyes must effectively  change focus, move and work in unison. An assessment of accommodation,  ocular motility and binocular vision determines how well your eyes  focus, move and work together. This testing will look for problems that  keep your eyes from focusing effectively or make using both eyes  together difficult.

Eye Health Evaluation
A  wide variety of microscopes, lense, and digital technology will be used  to assess the health of all the structures of the eye and the  surrounding tissues. Dilating eye drops are often used to temporarily  widen the pupil for better views of the structures inside the eye. In  addition to measuring the pressure inside of the eye, this also the part  of the eye exam where your doctor of optometry can detect otherwise  unknown eye and systemic diseases.

Additional Testing
Additional testing may be needed based on the results of the  previous tests to confirm or rule out possible problems, to clarify  uncertain findings, or to provide a more in-depth assessment.

At  the completion of the examination, your optometrist will assess and  evaluate the results of the testing to determine a diagnosis and develop  a treatment plan. He or she will discuss with you the nature of any  visual or eye health problems found and explain available treatment  options. In some cases, referral for consultation with, or treatment by,  another optometrist or other health care provider may be indicated.

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